Best Bitcoin Card for Tajikistan
The Republic of Tajikistan is located in Central Asia and is with 143 100 km² the smallest and at the same time poorest Central Asian CIS state. It has four neighbouring states: northwest and north Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, east China and south Afghanistan.
The difficult to access high mountain country is located on the western slope of the Pamir high mountain range, which occupies about half of the national territory. About 90 % of the territory of Tajikistan is mountainous. Valleys account for only about one tenth of the country’s surface area and are mainly located in the west and south. The Pamir mountain range lies at an altitude of 3,000 m or higher. Pamir means “cold steppe willow” in Turkish. Further mountain ranges are Tienshan, Alaigebirge, Transalai, Kunlun Shan, Karakorum and Hindukusch. An inner highland is characterized by wide basins filled with rubble and lying about 3,500 to 4,000 m high. The high mountains of the 7 483 m high Pik Ismail Samani (formerly Pik Kommunisma) have the highest mountain in the country. There are other mountains which are over 7,000 metres high, such as Pik Lenin, which was also named during Soviet domination, with 7,134 metres. Large areas of the high mountains are glaciated.
The largest lake of the Pamir region is the Karakul with about 380 km², which is located at the border to China. It is also the largest inland water body in Tajikistan. The country is crossed by a dense river system. The two most important rivers are the Syrdarja (formerly Iaxartes) and the Amudarja (formerly Oxus) with their tributaries. The Amudarja in the south is one of the longest rivers in Central Asia, the Syrdarja is less watery, but with 2,212 km the longest river in the country. Both flow into the Aral Sea.
According to the constitution of 1994, Tajikistan is a presidential republic. The head of state is the president directly elected for seven years (Emomalii Rahmon since 1992 and 1994, respectively). The constitution actually provides for two re-elections, but this was extended for Rahmon. The president’s sphere of power includes the representation of the republic at home and abroad as well as the appointment of the cabinet and the head of government (Kokhir Rasulzoda since November 2013) with the approval of parliament.
The bicameral parliament consists of the Madschlisi Namoyondagon (lower house) with 63 seats and the Madschlisi Milli (upper house) with 33 seats. Of the members of the House of Lords, 25 are indirectly elected by the representatives of the regions and eight are appointed by the President. Elections are held every five years.
The country is divided into two provinces, additionally there is the capital district Dushanbe and a district administered directly by the central government. The autonomous province of Bergbadachshan is located in the eastern half of the country.
Tajikistan is the poorest of the five Central Asian republics. The main causes are the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the civil war from 1992 to 19997. Since the end of the civil war, there has been a slight economic upswing, but this has not yet contributed significantly to improving the situation of the population. The state is supported by foreign aid programmes, also to alleviate the food shortage. 40% of the population live below the poverty line. Unemployment is high (officially 2.5%, unofficially up to 40%; actual youth unemployment is even higher). Foreign debt still stood at 52% of gross national income in 2011.
Only 7% of the country’s land area is used for agriculture, yet more than two thirds of the population work in this sector. The cultivation of wheat, rice and maize as well as fruit and wine is only of minor importance. By far the most important agricultural export product is cotton. It is also processed in the country. Silk, wool and carpets are also produced. The mountains are dominated by livestock farming with cattle, goats, sheep and yaks. The increasing salination and erosion of the soil, which is due to too intensive and unsustainable use and irrigation of the soil, is proving difficult for agriculture.
The one-sided orientation of the economy towards the cultivation of cotton, which dates back to the Soviet era, has led to the emergence of few other viable industries. Aluminium production and hydropower are the dominant industries. The country is rich in mineral resources. Among other things, gold and uranium are mined and exported to a large extent. The reserves of crude oil, natural gas and coal are low. Besides gold and uranium, the export of non-ferrous metals such as lead, zinc, tungsten, bismuth, arsenic, tin, antimony and mercury as well as light industrial products is important.
Turkey is the main trading partner for exports, followed by Afghanistan and China. Imports (mainly crude oil and petroleum products, natural gas, food and beverages, etc.) are also very high.