Best Bitcoin Card for Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is a French overseas territory (Collectivité d’outre-mer, COM). The small archipelago east of the Canadian coast, about 25 kilometres south of Newfoundland, is the last remnant of the French colony of New France. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon has 6021 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2015). The main activities of the French-speaking population are fishing and tourism. The capital is called Saint-Pierre.

Geography

The archipelago consists of the islands Saint-Pierre (26 km²), Miquelon-Langlade (205 km²) as well as other smaller islands and has a total area of 242 km². In the past the islands Miquelon and Langlade were separated, today they are connected by a narrow isthmus.

The climate is rough and windy. The average annual temperature is around 5°C, the humidity is over 80%. As a result, there is heavy fog, especially in spring and early summer. Compared to neighbouring Canada, winters are mild, but there are 120 days of frost a year. The average summer temperatures are mostly between 10 and 20 °C.

Population

The islands have a population of 6,314, the majority of whom live on Saint-Pierre with 5,699 inhabitants, and on Miquelon together with Langlade only 615.  In 1967 Saint-Pierre had 4565 inhabitants, Miquelon-Langlade 621, a total of 5,186. The Catholics on the islands are organizationally part of the Apostolic Vicariate of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

Languages

French is spoken in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. Until the 20th century, part of the population spoke Basque.

Politics

The General Council (conseil général) has 19 members. One representative is sent to the French National Assembly and one to the Senate. The elections are held every six years.

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon are not part of the customs territory of the European Community under Article 3(1) of the CC.

Holders of certain Canadian identity documents may travel with them as long as they do not spend more than three months in total on the archipelago during a six-month period, irrespective of nationality. All other travellers require a passport and, depending on nationality and length of stay, a visa.

Economy

The currency is the euro. The economy is dominated by fishing and tourism. Since the cod fishing moratorium off the coast of Newfoundland in 1992, the economy of the archipelago has been deprived of its former main basis. Fish and shellfish farming could not compensate for the loss of cod. Since the beginning of the economic crisis in 1992, the overseas territory has been increasingly dependent on subsidies from the motherland.

Approximately 700 ha are used for agricultural purposes. Vegetables are often grown in greenhouses, as the harsh climate and poor soil hardly permit extensive agricultural use. The animal population is low, at most hens and eggs play a role. The archipelago produced 804,540 eggs and 2,725 hens in 1994.

Since 2009, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon have been part of the European Payments Area (SEPA), as decided by the European Payments Council (EPC). By far the largest employer is the public sector. Tourism has declined in the islands.

Environment

Heavy burdens on the environment occur due to the fact that waste is not disposed of properly. As a result, uncontrolled landfills are created and the waste is simply incinerated.

Until 1992, when cod fishing was banned by a Franco-Canadian moratorium because fish were scarce, the islands’ economy was based on fishing. Trawling, including by Canadian and Spanish trawlers, caused the apparently inexhaustible stocks to collapse. They have not yet recovered and the islands are dependent on subsidies and public works. Nordic Arctic crab stocks have also fallen by half, so the number of jobs has become very small. Aquaculture is intended to remedy this situation, but experience in other areas shows that it poses an even greater threat to wild populations. Scallops are also bred, the waste from which is fed to the fish in the aquacultures. Here, too, wild stocks had collapsed by almost 90%. Public funds are now being used to promote reintroduction into the wild.

Protective measures are directed at the boreal coniferous forest. The white-tailed deer, introduced by hunters in 1952 and whose stocks are not controlled, has contributed to the disappearance of almost a third of the forest since 1952. More than 500 hunters prevent the solution of the problem, especially as there are practically no restrictions. The government in Paris is trying to identify important habitats, even though there is no nature conservation legislation in this part of French territory. This is particularly true of the breeding grounds of rare bird species, such as the yellow-legged plover, which is threatened with extinction. However, terns and other swallows are common. The island of Grand Colombier is one of the most important refuges for seabirds such as razorbills, puffins (about 10,000 breeding pairs) and numerous waders.

There is no seal sanctuary, so that when mothers are flushed by vehicles on the beach and leave their offspring, the young have no chance of survival.