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The Caribbean island state of Grenada lies at the southern end of the inner Antilles arch and consists of the islands of Grenada (310 km²) and Carriacou (34 km²) as well as other small coral islands. Carriacou and Petit Martinique belong to the southern Grenadines. To the north, Grenada is bordered by the island state of St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
The main island Grenada as well as the southern Grenadines are of volcanic origin. On Grenada, a mountain range runs through the country from north to south, rising to a maximum height of 840 m (Mount Saint Catherine). The crater lake Grand Etang is located here at an altitude of about 550 m. The crater lake is a small lake with a large crater. The mountainous country is divided by valleys and rivers and slopes steeply towards the west towards the coast. On the coasts there are long, wide sandy beaches. The island Carriacou lies about 33 km northeast of Grenada and is characterized by a hill chain up to 300 m high. The capital of the island state, St. George’s, lies on the west coast of Grenada.
Around 104,600 people live in the island state of Grenada, most of them on the main island of the same name. The capital St. George’s with about 10 000 inhabitants is the largest city. Carriacou is home to about 6,100 people, and Petit Martinique, an island of only two square kilometres, has about 700 inhabitants. Over 80% of the population are black and descendants of African slaves. Mixed males account for about 13% of the population, and about 3% of the population are descendants of Indian contract workers who came to the island as labourers after the abolition of slavery. More than 90 % of the people profess the Christian faith; altogether more than half of the inhabitants of Grenada are Catholics and only about 25 % Anglicans. There are also smaller groups of Methodists, Presbyterians and Baptists.
The official language in Grenada is English, and Patois (Grenadian Creole) is also spoken. Population growth is 1.5 %, average life expectancy is 65 years. Children between the ages of six and 14 are required to attend school. The literacy rate of the population is estimated at 98%.
Grenada’s economy is based on the export of agricultural products (mainly bananas and nutmeg) and tourism. Due to the low level of diversification, the economy can hardly react to disturbances. Since the international financial crisis in 2009, the economy has stagnated. In spring 2013, the country became insolvent. Unemployment has risen to over 40 %.
Agriculture accounts for 5 % of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about a quarter of the working population. It is not possible to cover its own food requirements. Bananas, nutmegs, cocoa, bananas, cinnamon, cloves, ginger and laurel are exported (this is why the island is also called Spice Island).
The moderately developed industry accounts for 11% of GDP and concentrates on the processing of agricultural products in mostly smaller enterprises. Textiles are also produced. Carriacou, the Grenadine island, is known for its long boat building tradition. The most important source of foreign exchange is tourism, with many tourists coming to the islands only as day-trippers from passing cruise ships.
The most important foreign trade partners for exports are the CARICOM countries, followed by Great Britain and the USA. The main imports are food, machinery, means of transport, industrial and consumer goods. The main suppliers are the USA, followed by the CARICOM states and Great Britain.
Grenada has an international airport (Point Salinas), which was started with the help of Cuba and completed by the USA. The road network covers about 1 000 km. The currency is the East Caribbean Dollar.